Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, pen name Sa‘di, was a 13th century court poet from Shiraz. Sa‘di lived in a tumultuous time, witnessing both the Mongol invasions and collapse of Baghdad. He spent three decades travelling, and upon returning wrote the Bustan (Orchard) and Gulistan (Rose Garden), he also left behind a large divan. Sa‘di was considered the peak of Persian prosody and eloquence - in the pre-colonial Muslim world, students from Bosnia to Bengal begin learning Persian with his Gulistan.